AWS Certified Solutions Architect Pro – Study Notes Domain 4

By | 2016-10-13

Domain 4.0: Network Design for a complex large scale deployment (10% of Exam)

4.1 Demonstrate ability to design and implement networking features of AWS

4.2 Demonstrate ability to design and implement connectivity features of AWS

  • When you create a NAT instance, don’t forget to disable source/destination checks!
    • Connecting 2 VPCs within a single region
    • Transitive peering is not supported (on purpose)
    • Up to 50 peers can be created (soft limit, contact amazon to go up to 125)
    • Allows you to route traffic between the peer VPCs using private IP addresses; as if they are part of the same network.
    • Can’t have matching or overlapping CIDR blocks
    • A placement group can span peered VPCs, but you won’t get full bandwidth between instances
    • Can’t reference a security group from peer VPC as source/destination for ingress/egress rules. Instead use CIDR blocks
    • Private DNS values cannot resolve between instances in peered VPCs (use private IP addresses instead)
    • How to setup:
      • Local VPC owner sends request to remote VPC owner
      • Remote VPC owner has to accept
      • Local VPC adds route out to route table
      • Remote VPC adds route back to their route table
      • Security Groups & NACLs in both VPCs have to allow traffic
    • https://youtu.be/SMvom9QjkPk
    • Can be partitioned into multiple virtual interfaces (VIFS)
      • use the same connection to access public IP address space (EC2, DynamoDB, & S3) via public VIFs, and private resources (internal IP addresses) via private VIFs
    • Reduce costs when dealing with large volumes of traffic
    • Increase reliability & bandwidth
    • Available in 10Gbps, 1Gbps and sub-1Gbps (through Direct Connect Partners)
    • Uses 802.1Q Ethernet VLAN trunking
    • Is not redundant:
      • You can add redundancy by having 2 connections (2 routers, 2 direct connects) or by having a site-to-site VPN in place (using BGP for failover)
    • Layer 2 connections are not supported
    • When using a VPN to connect to a VPC, you need 2 anchor points:
      • Customer Gateway (CGW): physical or software appliance
      • Virtual Private Gateway (VPG): anchor on the AWS side
    • In US only, just need 1 Direct Connect to connect to all 4 US regions.
    • Recommended best practice for an HA solution is to use either 2 DXs or 1 DX and 1 VPN.
    • Does not support jumbo frames
    • External Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP) for routing
    • Batch processing with large, compute intensive workloads
    • Demands high CPU, Storage & networking requirements
    • Usually requires jumbo frames as well (MTU 9000)
  • Enhanced networking (https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/) is available using SR-IOV on supported instance types:
    • Don’t span AZs, 1 PG = 1 AZ
    • Can span subnets (in same AZ)
      • only certain supported instances (C3, C4, D2, I2, M4, R3)
    • existing instances can’t be moved into a PG
    • Amazon prefers homogenous instance types, but you can mix
      • Greater likelihood that launch will succeed
    • Best practice is to size PG for peak load & launch all instances @ the same time as there may not be sufficient capacity in the AZ to add extra instances later on.
    • Region wide load balancer
    • Can be used internally or externally
    • Can do SSL termination and processing
      • ELB routing the same client to the same application server
      • AWS best practice dictates using the DB instead of using ELB for sticky sessions so that you don’t impact the user
    • Integrates with auto-scaling
    • ELB EC2 health checks (query a page)
    • Integrate with CloudWatch
      • Advance metric Load balancing based on CloudWatch metrics (CPU, network usage, disk, etc.)
    • Integrate with Route 53 (Cloud based DNS load balancing)
    • Supported ports:
      • 25 (SMTP)
      • 80/443
      • 1024-65535
    • Can’t assign Elastic IPs to an ELB
    • IPv4 & IPv6 supported (but VPCs don’t support IPv6 currently)
    • Can load balance to zone apex of domain name
    • Can get history of ELB API calls by turning on CloudTrail (output to S3 bucket & inspect logs in bucket)
    • 1 SSL certificate per ELB unless you have a wildcard cert.
  • NAT instance vs NAT Gateway
    • Evaluate technical difference between the 2 for your needs, if you don’t need a specific item only supported by an instance, go gateway.
    • Instance
      • Use a script to manage failover between instance
      • Depends on the bandwidth of the instance type
      • Managed by you
      • Manual port forwarding
      • Use a bastion server to manage
      • Use CloudWatch to see traffic/alarms
    • Gateway
      • Built in HA. Gateways in each AZ are implemented with redundancy
      • Can burst up to 10Gbps
      • Managed by AWS
      • Optimized for handling NAT traffic
      • Port forwarding not supported
      • Bastion server not supported
      • Traffic metrics not supported
  • Scaling NATs
  • http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuide/VPC_Subnets.html

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